Category: grammar

Conjunctions and Transitions

Conjunctions and Transitions: Linking Your Ideas Together 🌉✍️

Welcome to our lesson on Conjunctions and Transitions, the essential tools that help link your ideas together seamlessly in English writing and speech. These linguistic connectors enrich your expressions, ensuring clarity and coherence in your narratives, arguments, or expository texts.

Let’s dive into understanding these connectors, with a plethora of examples to guide you through.

What Are Conjunctions? 🤝

Conjunctions are words used to connect clauses, sentences, or words in the same clause. They are the glue that holds sentences together, allowing for more complex and interesting expressions.

Types of Conjunctions:

1. Coordinating Conjunctions (FANBOYS: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So)

  • Purpose: To connect words, phrases, or independent clauses of equal rank.
  • Example: “I wanted to go for a walk, but it started to rain.”

2. Subordinating Conjunctions

  • Purpose: To join an independent clause and a dependent clause, introducing a relationship like cause, time, or condition.
  • Examples: “Although it was raining, I went for a walk.” “I’ll join you as soon as I finish this task.”

3. Correlative Conjunctions

  • Purpose: To work in pairs to join various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal.
  • Example: “Not only did she apologize, but she also offered to fix the mistake.”

What Are Transitions? 🚦

Transitions are words or phrases that provide a connection between ideas, sentences, and paragraphs, guiding the reader through the content. They improve the flow of writing by creating strong links between your thoughts.

Types of Transitions:

1. Addition (Furthermore, Moreover, Additionally)

  • Purpose: To add information to the point being discussed.
  • Example: “He is a great friend. Furthermore, he’s an excellent mentor to many.”

2. Contrast (However, On the other hand, Nevertheless)

  • Purpose: To present an opposing viewpoint or contradict the previous statement.
  • Example: “I understand your point. Nevertheless, I have some reservations.”

3. Cause and Effect (Therefore, Consequently, As a result)

  • Purpose: To show the relationship between two parts of a sentence where one part causes the other.
  • Example: “It rained heavily last night; as a result, the soccer match was postponed.”

4. Sequence/Order (First, Second, Finally)

  • Purpose: To indicate the order of what is being said.
  • Example:First, we will gather data. Next, we will analyze it. Finally, we will present our findings.”

5. Example/Emphasis (For instance, In fact, Specifically)

  • Purpose: To provide an example or highlight a point.
  • Example: “Many animals hibernate during winter. For instance, bears spend the cold months in caves or dens.”

Mastering the Use of Conjunctions and Transitions 🏆

  1. Practice Writing: Incorporate various conjunctions and transitions in your essays or stories.
  2. Experiment with different types to enrich your writing.
  3. Reading Actively: While reading books or articles, take note of how authors use these connectors.
  4. Observe the flow and clarity they bring to the text.
  5. Exercises and Quizzes: Engage in exercises that specifically target conjunctions and transitions.
  6. This practice helps solidify your understanding and application.

Conjunctions and transitions are pivotal in achieving a well-structured, fluid, and coherent piece of writing or speech.

By effectively employing these connectors, you’re not just linking words or ideas but also guiding your readers through your thought process, making your communication more effective and engaging. Happy linking! 🚀📚

Homophones and Homographs

Homophones and Homographs 📝✨

Welcome to our lesson on the whimsical world of Homophones and Homographs! These linguistic twins can be both amusing and challenging, but mastering them is a great way to improve your English spelling and vocabulary.

Today, we’ll explore the differences between these two types of words, delve into examples, and discover tips to keep them straight.

Let’s enhance your understanding and have some fun along the way!

What Are Homophones? 📞📱

Homophones are words that sound alike but have different meanings and often different spellings. They are the pranksters of the English language, causing confusion in writing but also adding a rich layer of complexity.

Examples of Homophones:

  1. Flour/Flower 🌺🍚
    • Flour: A powder made by grinding raw grains, roots, beans, nuts, or seeds.
    • Flower: The colorful part of a plant that is often fragrant and can produce fruit or seeds.
  2. Knight/Night 🌜⚔️
    • Knight: A man awarded a nonhereditary title by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity.
    • Night: The period from sunset to sunrise when it is dark.
  3. Mail/Male 📬👨
    • Mail: Letters and packages conveyed by the postal system.
    • Male: A male person, plant, or animal.

What Are Homographs? 📊📈

Homographs are words that are spelled the same but have different meanings and sometimes different pronunciations. They’re like the secret agents of the English language, blending into sentences until context reveals their true identity.

Examples of Homographs:

  1. Lead (to guide)/Lead (a metal) 🧭🪙
    • Lead (to guide): To be in charge or command of.
    • Lead (a metal): A heavy, soft, grey metal that is highly malleable and ductile.
  2. Tear (to rip)/Tear (a drop from the eye) 💧✂️
    • Tear (to rip): To pull something apart or to pieces with force.
    • Tear (a drop from the eye): A drop of liquid from the eye, especially one caused by emotion.
  3. Bass (a type of fish)/Bass (low sound) 🎣🎶
    • Bass (a type of fish): A large group of fish that includes many different species.
    • Bass (low sound): The lowest adult male singing voice or the lowest part in musical composition.

Tips for Mastering Homophones and Homographs 💡

  1. Context Is Key: Always consider the context of a sentence to determine the meaning of a homograph or the correct spelling of a homophone.
  2. Practice with Puns: Homophones are often used in puns and jokes. Practicing with these can help reinforce their meanings and spellings.
  3. Flashcards: Create flashcards with homophones and homographs to test yourself on their meanings and spellings.
  4. Reading Aloud: For homographs, reading passages aloud can help you practice the correct pronunciation based on context.
  5. Writing Sentences: Write your own sentences using homophones and homographs to improve your understanding and recall.

Understanding homophones and homographs enriches your vocabulary and aids in precise communication.

By learning these, you not only become more proficient in English but also gain the ability to appreciate its nuances and have fun with its complexities.

Enjoy exploring the linguistic landscape! 🌐📚

Advanced Punctuation Rules

Advanced Punctuation Rules in English 📚✒️

Welcome to our deep dive into the advanced punctuation rules of English!

Whether you’re writing an essay, a report, or crafting a story, understanding how to use punctuation effectively can elevate your writing and clarify your meaning.

Today, we’ll explore some of the more nuanced aspects of English punctuation, providing you with examples to illustrate these rules.

Let’s enhance your writing skills together!

The Semicolon (;) 🔍

  • Purpose: To link two independent clauses that are closely related but could stand as sentences on their own.
  • Example: “She loves to read; her favorite book is ‘Pride and Prejudice.'”

Use with Transitional Phrases

  • When transitional phrases (however, therefore, indeed) connect two independent clauses, use a semicolon before and a comma after the transitional phrase.
  • Example: “I planned to go for a run; however, the rain made me change my plans.”

The Colon (:) 🕵️

  • Purpose: To introduce a list, a quote, or an explanation that follows a complete sentence.
  • Example for a List: “She needed to buy the following items: bread, milk, and eggs.”
  • Example for a Quote: “Remember what Hemingway said: ‘There is nothing to writing. All you do is sit down at a typewriter and bleed.'”
  • Example for an Explanation: “He had only one fear: heights.”

Use in Titles

  • Colons can separate the main title from the subtitle.
  • Example: “The Great Gatsby: The Story of Lost Dreams and Reality”

The Dash (—) 🏃

  • Purpose: To create a strong break in the structure of a sentence to add emphasis, an appositive, or an aside.
  • Emphasis: “My mother’s lemon pie—not her apple pie—is what I look forward to every holiday.”
  • Appositive: “The CEO—known for her charitable work—announced a new philanthropic initiative.”
  • Aside: “He finally answered—after taking what seemed like an eternity.”

Difference Between Dashes and Hyphens

  • Dashes are used for emphasis or interruption and are longer than hyphens, which connect words and numbers (e.g., twenty-three).

Parentheses (()) 🤐

  • Purpose: To include additional information that is less important, clarification, or asides without interrupting the flow of the main sentence.
  • Example: “The concert (which was sold out) was her first live performance.”

Use with Complete Sentences

  • When a complete sentence within parentheses stands inside another sentence, do not capitalize the first word or end with a period.
  • Example: “He finally decided (after much deliberation) to take the job offer.”

Quotation Marks (“ ”) 💬

  • Direct Speech: Use quotation marks to enclose direct speech or quotations.
  • Example: “He asked, ‘Are you feeling okay?'”

Titles of Short Works

  • Use quotation marks for titles of short works such as articles, short stories, and poems.
  • Example: “My favorite short story is ‘The Lottery’ by Shirley Jackson.”

Ellipses (…) 💭

  • Purpose: To indicate a pause, unfinished thought, trailing off, or an omission from a quote.
  • Pause or Unfinished Thought: “I wonder what it would be like to fly…”
  • Omission: “To be or not to be…that is the question.”

Commas and Adjective Order 📝

  • Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives (adjectives that independently modify the noun).
  • Example Without Comma: “She wore a beautiful red dress.”
  • Example With Commas: “It was a long, cold, winter night.”

Practicing Advanced Punctuation 🛠️

  1. Writing Exercises: Craft sentences or short paragraphs using each punctuation mark.
  2. Reading Widely: Notice how authors use punctuation in novels, essays, and articles.
  3. Editing Practice: Take a piece of writing and revise it, focusing on improving the punctuation.

Understanding and mastering these advanced punctuation rules can significantly impact the clarity and effectiveness of your writing.

Remember, punctuation is not just about following rules; it’s about communicating your ideas clearly and stylishly. Happy writing! 🚀📝

Storytelling Techniques in English

Storytelling Techniques in English 📖✨

Welcome to our interactive guide on mastering storytelling techniques in English!

Storytelling is an art form that has been around since the dawn of time.

Whether you’re writing a novel, telling a story at a dinner party, or delivering a presentation, these techniques can help you engage your audience and make your stories unforgettable.

Let’s explore some key storytelling techniques, complete with examples to illuminate each concept.

What Makes a Good Story? 🤔

A good story captivates the audience, evokes emotions, and often delivers a memorable message or lesson. It’s not just about the plot but how you tell it. The use of effective storytelling techniques can transform a simple narrative into a compelling story.

Key Storytelling Techniques 🗝️

1. Setting the Scene 🌆

  • Definition: Establishing the time and place of the story.
  • Purpose: To immerse the audience in the world of your story.
  • Example: “It was a stormy night in 19th century Paris, the streets slick with rain as the faint sound of music wafted from the distant cafés.”

2. Character Development 👤

  • Definition: Creating multi-dimensional characters that evolve over time.
  • Purpose: To make characters relatable and memorable to the audience.
  • Example: “John started as a timid librarian, but adventures and misadventures transformed him into a daring explorer with a thirst for knowledge.”

3. Show, Don’t Tell 🎭

  • Definition: Using descriptive language to show what’s happening rather than just telling the audience.
  • Purpose: To create a vivid mental picture and evoke stronger emotions.
  • Example: Instead of saying “Sara was sad,” show it: “Sara’s eyes brimmed with tears as she gazed out the window, her hands trembling.”

4. Conflict and Resolution ⚔️➡️🕊️

  • Definition: Introducing problems or challenges and eventually resolving them.
  • Purpose: To build suspense and keep the audience engaged.
  • Example: “The village was plagued by a relentless dragon, but through cunning and bravery, the villagers devised a plan to pacify the beast and live in harmony.”

5. Use of Dialogue 💬

  • Definition: Incorporating conversations between characters.
  • Purpose: To reveal character traits, advance the plot, and add realism.
  • Example: “‘We can’t give up now,’ Tom said, clenching his fists. ‘The treasure is within our reach, and I believe in us.'”

6. Pacing 🏃‍♂️🐢

  • Definition: Controlling the speed and rhythm of the story.
  • Purpose: To maintain interest and build towards the climax.
  • Example: “The story began at a leisurely pace, allowing readers to get to know the characters, but as the mystery unfolded, the events quickly accelerated, leading to an unexpected revelation.”

7. Foreshadowing 🔮

  • Definition: Hinting at future events or outcomes in the story.
  • Purpose: To create anticipation and hint at the direction of the story.
  • Example: “Little did she know, the locket she found that morning would unlock secrets of her past and change her future forever.”

8. Themes and Motifs 🌌

  • Definition: Underlying messages or repeated symbols throughout the story.
  • Purpose: To add depth and layers of meaning.
  • Example: “The recurring motif of the phoenix, appearing in artwork and stories throughout the narrative, symbolized the characters’ ability to rise from their ashes and rebuild.”

How to Practice These Techniques 🛠️

  1. Write Regularly: Practice storytelling by writing short stories or anecdotes. Focus on incorporating different techniques.
  2. Read Widely: Read a variety of genres and authors. Analyze how they use storytelling techniques.
  3. Feedback: Share your stories with others and be open to feedback. Understanding how your story is received can help you refine your techniques.
  4. Storytelling Groups: Join a storytelling group or workshop where you can practice and learn from others.

Storytelling is a skill that can be honed with practice and patience.

By understanding and applying these techniques, you can elevate your stories, connect with your audience on a deeper level, and leave a lasting impact. Happy storytelling! 🚀📚

Common mistakes in English (PDF)

Common mistakes in English (PDF)




Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.

Here is the complete list of the most common errors in English, with all the grammar mistakes to avoid (and how to correct them):

You don’t say You say
A blue-eyes girl A blue-eyed girl
A book of Stephen King A book by Stephen king
A humoristic text A humorous text
A news A piece of news
A political man A politician
A scientific experience A scientific experiment
According to what say people According to what people say
All the people are/ Everybody are Everybody is
All what I can do All that I can do
An american writer An American writer
An economic car An economical car
An economical problem An economic problem
An information / informations Some information
Can we use there boat? Can we use their boat?
Every days/ all the days Every day
Explain her the situation Explain the situation to her
Google point com Google dot com
He doesn’t stop telling lies He keeps telling lies
He entered into the room He entered the room
He has blue eyes He is blue-eyed
He has left smoking. He has stopped smoking.
He is a more nicer person than you He is a nicer person than you
He is lawyer He is a lawyer
He is on holidays He is on holiday
He is sympathetic He is nice
He like cheese He likes cheese
He married with her He married her
He said me He said to me
He succeeded to get the prize He succeeded in getting the prize
He told / He told to me He told me
He took his girlfriend in the hand He took his girlfriend by the hand
He went to abroad to study He went abroad to study
He wins a lot of money He earns a lot of money
He worked during three months. He worked for three months
He’s more big than him he’s bigger than him
Here are some advices Here is some advice
How many childs you have? How many childs do you have?
How many luggages do you have? How many pieces of luggage do you have?
How much is the price of this car? How much is this car?
How much is the temperature? What is the temperature?
How the writer says As the writer says
How to spell… ? How do you spell… ?
I am a French I am French
I am agree I agree
I am boring / shocking I am bored / shocked
I am difficult to learn English its is difficult for me to learn English
I am not agree I don’t agree ou I disagree
I am used to work a lot I am used to working a lot
I am waiting since 10 I have been waiting since 10
I call you tomorrow I’ll call you tomorrow
I did a mistake  I made a mistake
I didn’t meet nobody I didn’t meet anybody
I didn’t say nothing I didn’t say anything
I didn’t understood I didn’t understand.
I don’t know nothing I don’t know anything
I don’t know to swim I can’t swim
I don’t like fish and chips – Me too I don’t like fish and chips – Me neither / Neither do I
I don’t speak chinese, but I speak a little french. I don’t speak Chinese, but I speak a little French.
I don’t use a watch I don’t wear a watch
I entered into the room I entered the room
I go always to work by bike. I always go to work by bike.
I have 25 years I am 25 years old / I’m 25
I have a little more questions for you I have a few more questions for you
I have visited my parents last week I visited my parents last week
I have visited Roma last weekend. I visited Roma last weekend.
I like very much ice cream I like ice cream very much
I look forward to meet you I look forward to meeting you
I looked the paintings. I looked at the paintings.
I meet my wife in 2010 I met my wife in 2010
I need hundred dollars I need a hundred dollars
I play soccer good I play soccer well
I take a decision I make a decision
I told: ‘ I will go home’ I said: ‘I will go home’
I want that she comes I want her to come
I want to lend a car from you I want to borrow a car from you
I’ll date you this Saturday I’ll take you on a date this Saturday
I’m thinking of you I’m thinking about you
I’m two tired I’m too tired
In the today world In today’s world
It depends of… It depends on…
It is diferent of It is different from
It is more hot now. It’s hotter now.
It takes an important part in It plays an important part in
It’s more easy It’s easier
Its a wonderful world. It’s a wonderful world.
Last night I cry Last night I cried
Less and less people Fewer and fewer people
Let’s go at home. Let’s go home.
Let’s profit of life Let’s enjoy life
lots of young Lots of young people/youngsters
Me and Sarah live in London Sarah and I live in London
My boyfriend is dentist My boyfriend is a dentist
My car isn’t enough big My car isn’t big enough
My flight departs in 5:00 am My flight departs at 5:00 am
Over all the world All over the world
Paul and me went to the zoo. Paul and I went to the zoo.
Paul has been absent from Monday Paul has been absent since Monday
payed paid
Pollution touches a lot of countries Pollution affects a lot of countries
Sarah is easy to suffer from cold Sarah suffers from cold easily
She has been dying for two years She has been dead for two years
She is angry at me She is angry with me
She is dead two years ago She died two years ago
She is waiting her friend She is waiting for her friend
Six hundreds of people Six hundred people
Someone has stolen a bank Someone robbed a bank
Tell her don’t come now. Tell her not to come now.
Tell me how are you. Tell me how you are.
Tell me why did you go there? Tell me why you went there?
That is an other story That is another story
That’s a honour That’s an honour
The another day The other day
The answer of this question is complicated The answer to this question is complicated
The apples are very tasty Apples are very tasty
the begining the beginning
The climate of Japan is different from Thailand The climate of Japan is different from that of Thailand
The man which works here is from Spain. The man who works here is from Spain.
The nuclear Nuclear power
The people usually think that… People usually think that
The police has arrested him. The police have arrested him.
The police is coming The police are coming
The poors The poor
The teacher learnt us a lesson The teacher taught us a lesson
The text speaks about The text deals with / is about
The three first years The first three years
Their coming tomorrow. They’re coming tomorrow.
There is no place in the hall There is no room in the hall
There is seven girls in the class There are seven girls in the class
They are not used to live in a hot country They are not used to living in a hot country
They go to school by foot they go to school on foot
They profit of him They take advantage of him
They succeed to do something They succeed in doing something
They sympathized They got on well
This is a good news This is good news
Throught Through
Tina is married with a doctor Tina is married to a doctor
To have a success To be successful
To take conscience To realize
To tell the true To tell the truth
to win money to earn money
We enjoyed at the party. We enjoyed ourselves at the party.
We know / are knowing a crisis We are going through a crisis
We studied during four hours. We studied for four hours.
We will help you make the dinner We will help you make dinner
What for has he come? What has he come for?
What means this? What does this means?
What time it is? What time is it?
Where I can find a pharmacy? Where can I find a pharmacy?
You can’t talk to him, he’s actually in a meeting You can’t talk to him, he’s currently in a meeting
You should not to smoke You should not smoke
You speak English good You speak English well
Your beautiful. You’re beautiful.



Whose and whom: what’s the difference?

Whose and whom: what’s the difference?




Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.


Whose is the genitive of who. It shows a relationship of belonging. Whose is used in different ways:
1 – As an interrogative word, to ask who owns something:
  • Whose book is on my bed? 
  • Whose umbrella is that? 
  • Whose pen is it? 
2 – As a relative pronoun, in sentences where the relative subordinate expresses possession. It is always followed by a noun:
  • That’s the boy whose bike is broken. 
  • This is Mrs Smith, whose husband died recently. 
  • Paul works with that other guy whose name I can’t remember. 

⚠️ The noun that follows whose is never preceded by a determinant:

  • This is the boy whose the sister is my friend. 
  • Whose the bike is broken? Is it Tom’s bike or is it your bike? 

⚠️ Whose should not be confused with who’s (which means ‘who is‘). Who’s is used to ask about identity, not possession:

  • Who’s that girl? 
  • Whose sister is she? 


Whom is also an interrogative pronoun, but it is used instead to replace the subject of a question (it is mainly used in formal English):

  • Whom is this book about? 
  • Whom did Paul hired? 

Whom is also used in statements instead of the subject of a clause. We say, for example:

  • This is my friend whom I just told you about. 
  • She’s calling the friend with whom she is living. 

⚠️ If the antecedent is not human, you have to use which:

  • This is the house which I bought. 


How to use Would rather in english

How to use Would rather in English




Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.

Rather is an adverb of degree and nuance that is also used to express alternatives and preferences.

Rather as a degree adverb

Rather is used to emphasize an adjective or adverb. Rather is often used to suggest an idea of something unexpected or surprising (it can be replaced by remarkably):

  • It’s rather cold today. 
  • The film was rather good. 
  • Paul speaks Spanish rather well. 
  • My city is rather small in comparison with Paris. 

⚠️Rather or quite? Rather has a meaning similar to quite (or fairly), even if these two words have a rather positive meaning, while rather has a rather negative meaning.

  • It’s quite warm today  (positive sense)
  • It’s rather warm today  (negative sense)

Alternatives and preferences with Rather than

Rather than is used to give more importance to one thing when two alternatives or preferences are compared. It can be replaced by ‘instead of’.

  • Let’s take the train rather than the bus. 
  • I would prefer to leave now rather than wait. 
  • He decided to write rather than telephone. 
  • It would be better to go in July rather than in August. 

⚠️ When the main clause has a verb in -ing, ‘rather than‘ can be followed by -ing:

  • I prefer walking rather than driving. 
  • I would rather spend my time traveling than working. 

Rather than is usually used when you want to compare two things. However, it can also be used at the beginning of a sentence. When we use rather than with a verb, we use the basic form or (less often) the -ing form of a verb:

  • Rather than walking, he ran. 
  • ❌ Rather than to pay … ❌

Wishes and preferences with Would rather

To talk about preferences or wishes, there is also the structure ‘would rather‘ (=’d rather) followed by the infinitive without to. It can be replaced by ‘prefer to‘:

  • I’d rather go alone. 
  • I don’t want to go to the cinema. I’d rather stay here. 

To say that a person would prefer another person to do something, ‘would rather‘ is usually followed by a tense in the past:

  • I’d rather (that) you came another time. 

To express regrets about something that has already happened, ‘would rather‘ is followed by the past perfect tense (it is similar to ‘wish‘):

  • I’d rather you hadn’t done that.

Rather with adjective + noun

With a/an we generally use rather a/an + adjective + noun, but we can also use a rather + adjective + noun.

With other determinants (some, those) we use determinant + rather + adjective + noun:

  • We had to wait rather a long time. (= We had to wait rather long time. – less common) 
  • He helped her out of rather an bad situation. (= He helped her out of a rather bad situation.) 
  • I had some rather good news today. 
  • ❌ I had rather some good news today. ❌

Rather a + noun

Rather a followed by a name is used more in formal language than in informal language (especially written):

  • It was rather a shock when I heard the news. 

Rather a lot

We often use rather with a lot to refer to large quantities of something:

  • This requires rather a lot of experience. 
  • There is rather a lot to do. 

We also use rather a lot with a meaning of ‘often’:

  • They went there rather a lot
  • This happens rather a lot

Rather + verb

Rather is often used to highlight verbs such as enjoy, hate, hope, like, love:

  • I was rather hoping you’d forgotten about that. 
  • I rather hate Indian food, actually.

Rather in short answers

Rather can be used to make a short answer:

  • ‘Are you comfortable?’ ‘Yes, rather!’ 

Rather to make comparisons

We use rather with more or less + an adjective or adverb to make a comparison with something (especially in writing):

  • I’m rather more concerned about the pollution. 
  • The country is rather less strong today than it was five years ago. 

Rather like

Rather with like is used to refer to similarities. Rather like then means ‘quite similar to’:

  • They were small insects, rather like cockroaches. 
  • I felt rather like a student facing his professor. 

Or rather

We use or rather to correct what we have just said, or to clarify things:

  • Her daughter is a doctor, or rather, a dentist. 
  • Paul picked us up in his car, or rather his dad’s car which he’d borrowed. 
  • He explained what this building is, or rather, what it was. 
  • He had to walk, or rather, run to the office. 



May and Might – lesson pdf

May and might




Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.

How to use May and Might in English ?

May and might are modal verbs. Might is the preterite of may and their use can be classified into two categories:

To express permission

We may use to ask politely:

  • May I ask you a question?

One can also use may to grant permission:

  • You may stay up late this evening. 

May can also be used to formulate a prohibition:

  • You may not smoke here. 

Might only express a permission in reported speech with a subordinate:

  • I asked her if I might borrow her car. 

May is only used in the present context. The equivalent in past and future contexts is be allowed to (to be authorized to, to have the right to…)

  • She wasn’t allowed to drink sodas. 
  • I hope that I’ll be allowed to watch TV tonight. 

To express the hypothesis

We also use may to suggest a probability, an uncertainty or a possibility, when we are not sure of something:

  • She may be jealous. 
  • You may be right but I’ll have to check. 

With might, the speaker expresses a greater uncertainty than with may:

  • He might not live here. 
  • It might not rain today. 

⚠️ Do not confuse might + verb and might + be v-ing:

  • He might play soccer.  (in general)
  • He might be playing soccer.  (right now)

⚠️ Do not confuse can and may:

  • This watch can be damaged by misuse. →  This watch may be damaged if it is not used properly.
  • This watch may be damaged by misuse. →  This watch may be damaged due to misuse. 



Compound nouns rules pdf

Compound nouns rules in English




Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.

In English, to form compound names, two or more names are associated, which can be juxtaposed, joined or simply separated by a dash:

  • a bookshop 
  • a bread knife 
  • a beach towel 
  • a horse-race 
  • the city-centre 

There are also other constructions possible, but they are rarer: with a gerund (ing) + noun, a particle + noun, or a noun + particle:

  • a checkout 
  • winbdsurfing 

It’ss always the last element that bears the mark of the plural (with some exceptions). It is then necessary to add an -s to the last element:

  • a bus driver 
  • the bus drivers 
  • a toothbrush 
  • two toothbrushes 

There are a few exceptions:

  • a sports car 
  • a savings account 
  • a clothes shop 
  • a customs officer 


It is always the last noun that is the most important. The one or those which precede it play the role of adjective: they describe the last word.

  • a flower garden 
  • a garden flower 

A compound noun is used when the relationship between the two nouns is recognized as constant. The meaning of the relationship between nouns is diverse: place, use, material, cause, etc…

  • the town centre 
  • a stone bridge 

Be careful! We use noun + of + noun, and not a compound noun, to talk about a quantity of something.

  • a piece of cheese 
  • a slice of ham 
  • a box of matches 
  • a spoonful of honey 
  • a group of tourists 

Be careful to distinguish the container and content:

  • a glass of wine 
  • a wine glass 
  • a tea cup 
  • a cup of tea 

Some compound nouns have a particle at the end:

  • a take-off 
  • a close-up 
  • a passer-by 
  • a grown-up 
  • a breakdown
  • a handout 
  • a breakthrough 

The plural is formed by adding an -s to the particle:

  • breakdowns 
  • grown-ups 

The particle can sometimes be at the beginning of the compound noun (in these cases the plural is formed by adding -s to the last word):

  • an outbreak 
  • an oucast 
  • an overdose 
  • an income

Compound nouns are widely used in newspaper headlines and technical language. They sometimes have more than two elements:

  • An evening dress rental service 



So and Such pdf

So and Such in English




Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.

So and such can be used in several different ways in English sentences.

SO and SUCH in exclamations

Both words can add emphasis to your sentences, to make the meaning stronger. In the exclamations, we use the formula so + adjective and such + adjective + noun (singular or plural):

  • It’s such a nice day! (noun)
  • It’s so beautiful outside…  (adjective)
  • He’s such a generous man.  (noun)
  • He’s so generous. (adjective)

The meaning is similar to words like ‘very’ or ‘really’:

  • The music is very loud! = The music is so loud!
  • She’s in a very bad mood today. = She’s in such a bad mood today.

Let’s take a closer look at So and Such:


As an adverb, so is similar to such and expresses an exclamation. It is often associated with an adjective, a quantifier (= a quantity word like many, much…), or a verb, and has different meanings according to the context:

  • I’m so glad to see you. 
  • I’m not so sure. 
  • We had so much work! 
  • You mustn’t worry so

So is also used to express the consequence:

  • I fel tired so I went to bed. 

We use so to express similarity:

  • I’m tired – So am I. 
  • Sam likes soccer. – So do I. 
  • Kevin lives in Germany. → So does Tina. 

So allows you to refer to previous statements or events:

  • I think so. 
  • Who says so? 
  • So… ? 
  • So what’s the problem? 
  • So we can’t go after all. 

So helps to avoid repetitions:

  • We arrived early and so did he. 
  • Tonny speaks Spanish and so does his friend. 

So can refer to a size, a length, an unspecified quantity:

  • The table is about so high. 
  • They pay us so much a week. 

So can also refer to a way of doing things:

  • Hold the pen (like) so
  • The helmet is so constructed as to absorb most of the impact. 

Finally, so can be used with quantifiers: much, many, little, few, often, rarely… This makes it possible to know a quantity, an amount of something:

  • Sarah earns so much money! 
  • You have had so much to drink! 
  • There was so little damage after the storm.
  • I’m surprised that so few students turned up today. 

The constructions So… that and such … that are used to express purpose and consequence:

So + adjective + that 

  • The hotel was so comfortable that we decided to stay another night.
  • Give me some money so (that) I can buy some eggs. 
  • I took a taxi so that I could get there on time. 
  • His handwriting is so bad (that) it’s illegible. 

The expression so as to, more formal, also expresses the purpose:

  • We came back early so as to avoid the bad weather. 


We use Such in front of names that can be counted in the singular, and in front of nouns that can be counted in the plural and uncountables nouns.

Such (a/an) expresses an exclamation or admiration and is used differently according to the context:

  • It’s such a surprise to see you here. 
  • Such situations are common. 
  • He’s changed his mind again. Oh well, such is life. 

Idioms with Such

Such … as can be used to make a comparison :

  • I’ve never seen such a fast car as yours. 

We use such as to present one or a list of examples of what we mention (it is mainly used in writing):

  • How can you forget a movie such as ‘Star Wars’?
  • I love action video games, such as Assassin’s Creed, GTA or Resident Evil. 
  • There are many ways to do it. – Such as? 

We use as such with a negative to indicate that a word or expression is not a very accurate description of the real situation. It can also be used after a noun to indicate that this thing is being considered alone, separately from other things or factors:

  • He’s not an expert as such, but … 
  • You’re a member of the staff and as such you can get coffe for free. 

Such and such is used to refer to a particular type of person or similar thing, regardless. Such and such is placed in front of the nouns:

  • Then she said the band was coming to Glasgow on such and such a date. 
  • If you do such and such a job, you will become rich. 

The constructions So… that and such … that are used to express the purpose and consequence: Such + adjective + noun + that (that is optional):

  • It’s such a good film (that) I’m going to see it again. 
  • Paul has such a big house (that) I got lost on the way to the kitchen.