Category: grammar

Adverbs in english grammar (PDF)

Adverbs in english grammar




Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.


It is used to specify how someone does something. They can modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs.

  • I am sincerely sorry.

Adverbs of place

  • above
  • abroad
  • anywhere
  • away
  • behind
  • downstairs
  • everywhere
  • here
  • home
  • inside, outside
  • nowhere
  • out / outside
  • somewhere
  • there
  • underground
  • upstairs

Adverbs of time

  • already
  • now
  • today
  • soon
  • then
  • yesterday
  • tomorrow
  • tonight

Adverbs of maners

You need to add -ly at the end to make an adverb of maners:

  • warmly
  • nicely
  • carefully
  • correctly
  • easily
  • loudly
  • slowly
  • patiently
  • quickly
  • quietly

Degree adverbs

  • too
  • very
  • more
  • totally
  • nearly
  • enough

Frequency adverbs

  • never
  • rarely
  • sometimes
  • occasionally
  • frequently
  • often
  • usually
  • always

Negative Adverbs

The adverbs hardly, barely and scarcely already have a negative meaning, so they cannot be associated with another negative form: the verb appears in the positive form.

  • I could hardly eat anything. 


Basic grammar rules: How to form the plural in English

Basic grammar rules: How to form the plural in English




Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.

This is a lesson about the plural in English: how to form the plural of regular and irregular English names.

Plural in regular English

The plural is usually formed with an -s at the end of the singular name:

  • book → books
  • dog → dogs
  • river → rivers
  • horse → horses
  • hat → hats
  • cup → cups
  • bag → bags
  • boat → boats

Be careful, for names that end in -s, -sh, -ch, -ch, -x, -z or -o, the plural mark is -es:

  • watch → watches
  • bus → buses
  • church → churches
  • box → boxes
  • witch → witches
  • dress → dresses
  • beach → beaches
  • kiss → kisses
  • table → tables
  • potato → potatoes
  • hero → heroes
  • echo → echoes

Some words ending with -o take a -s in the plural:

  • Zoo Zoos
  • Photo Photos
  • Piano Pianos
  • Auto Autos
  • Pro Pros
  • Tattoo Tattoos
  • Solo Solos
  • Kangaroo Kangaroos
  • Kilo Kilos
  • Memo Memos
  • Studio Studios
  • Video Videos

Some words ending with -o may have a -s or -es in the plural (both are correct):

  • buffalo → buffalos / buffaloes
  • no → nos / noes
  • tornado → tornados / tornadoes
  • volcano → volcanos / volcanoes
  • zero → zeros / zeroes
  • cargo → cargos / cargoes
  • mosquito → mosquitos / mosquitoes
  • halo → halos / haloes

For names ending in -y, it must be replaced by -ies:

  • baby → babies
  • party → parties
  • cherry → cherries
  • fly → flies
  • cry → cries
  • lady → ladies
  • entry → entries
  • city → cities

But if the -y is preceded by a vowel, just add a -s:

  • boy → boys
  • toy → toys
  • key → keys
  • way → ways
  • storey → storeys
  • day → days
  • tray → trays
  • donkey → donkeys

For names that end in -f or -fe, the plural mark is -ves:

  • wife → wives
  • knife → knives
  • leaf → leaves
  • thief → thieves
  • loaf → loaves
  • shelf → shelves
  • self → selves
  • half → halves
  • wolf → wolves

Some exceptions: belief, chief, cliff, proof, roof, oaf and safe take only one -s.

Plural in irregular English

Some names change significantly in the plural:

  • man → men
  • woman → women
  • child → children
  • person → people
  • foot → feet
  • tooth → teeth
  • goose → geese
  • mouse → mice
  • louse → lice
  • ox → oxen

But some names have the same form in the singular and plural: no need for -s at the end!

  • sheep sheep (NOT sheeps)
  • fish fish (NOT fishes)
  • information  information (NOT informations)
  • hair  hair (NOT hairs)

and so on for salmon, deer, aircraft, series, species, species, furniture and luggage, they never take -s in the plural!!!

Family names (surnames) take one -s in the plural:

  • I went to the Smiths for dinner last night.
  • The Simpsons.

Some Greek or Latin words may keep their original plural:

  • basis bases
  • hypothesis hypotheses
  • analysis analyses
  • crisis crises
  • diagnosis diagnoses
  • thesis theses
  • referendum referenda
  • phenomenon → phenomena

Measurements or cardinal numbers have regular plurals when used alone. If they are preceded by a number or many, they keep their singular form.

Ex: thousand, hundred, pound, foot and stone.

  • thousand    |     thousands 
  • hundred      |      hundreds 

The termination -s is not necessarily the mark of the plural. Some nouns in -s are uncountable nouns that are always followed by a verb in the singular:

– Names of diseases:

  • measles
  • mumps
  • shingles

– Game names:

  • billiards
  • dominoes
  • darts

– Names of materials:

  • physics
  • mathematics
  • linguistics

Objects composed of several parts always have the termination -s

  • trousers
  • tweezers
  • scissors
  • glasses

They are often preceded by – a pair of..:

Ex: a pair of scissors



Basic grammar rules: Personal pronouns

Basic grammar rules: personal pronouns (me, you, him…)




Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.

In this lesson we will see the personal pronoun in English (subjects and complements).

1/ Subject personal pronouns (or subject pronouns)

They are used to replace a name. Practical if you don’t want to repeat it over and over again….

  • I
  • you
  • he / she / it
  • we
  • you
  • they


  • I like coffee.
  • He is a doctor.
  • She is clever.
  • It doesn’t work.
  • We go to school.
  • Paul went to the cinema. He watched the new Star Wars. Then, he went to the restaurant. → The subject pronoun “He” therefore avoids putting “Paul” in each sentence.

⚠️ ‘I’ is always written in capital letters!

⚠️ ‘it’ is neutral and refers to objects or animals. However, sometimes we can use’he’ or’she’ to talk about a domestic animal, a boat, a motorcycle… a thing or an animal that we are close to and that we can consider as a girl or a boy.

⚠️ ‘it‘ is also used to make a comment, or to talk about time, temperature, time or distance:


  • It‘s raining.
  • It‘s difficult to find a job.
    It is important to dress well.
  • It will probably be cold tomorrow.
  • Is it eight o’clock yet?
  • It‘s 50 kilometres from here to London.

⚠️ We use ‘we’ to talk about ‘us’:

  • We like soccer.

2/ Complementary personal pronouns (or complementary pronouns)

  • me
  • you
  • him
  • her
  • it
  • us
  • you
  • them


  • It’s me, Mario !
  • I told you !
  • Give her a beer
  • Who is it ? That’s us !
  • The teacher always give them homework.
  • Where’s the phone ? It’s next to him.
  • She’s writing a letter to you.
  • Here’s your present. Open it!
  • John helped me.

⚠️ Always put the personal pronoun complement behind the verb.

⚠️ ‘I’ or ‘Me’?

  • Tom and I are going to Paris in August → Why not ‘Tom and me‘ ? Because ‘I’ is part of the subject of the sentence.
  • They gave the job to me. → Why not ‘I‘? Because ‘me’ is the object of the sentence.




How to use the Zero article in English

How to use the Zero article in English



Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.

In English, it is sometimes not necessary to put an article a,an or the in front of certain names.

(NOTE: some English teachers use the Ø symbol in their lesson to show when not to put an article)

Articles are not used in the following cases:

Talk about generalities, general truths, or give your opinion

(you will notice that all names are in the plural)

  • I hate cakes. (we’re talking about cakes in general)
  • I love music.
  • I like chocolate.
  • Planes travel faster than cars.
  • Japanese is the language spoken in Japan.
  • I think history is boring.
  • Sharks are dangerous animals.

Abstract names

  • Love is a good thing.
  • War is terrible.


  • Steel is very strong.
  • Red is my favorite color.


  • This table is made of glass.
  • This bridge is made of steel.

Meals, food and beverages

  • I have coffee for breakfast.
  • In Spain, dinner is served at 10pm.

The place, the direction

  • to go to work
  • I go to church every sunday
  • to get home
  • to be in bed
  • to go into hospital
  • from left to right
  • go to university
  • go to church

⚠️ we say: to go to the toilet

⚠️ Do not mistake:

  • She goes to school every day.  (The school as an institution, in the general sense)
  • She lives next to the school.  (a particular school)


  • I like English.
  • She can speak Japanese.


  • He plays football.
  • I like tennis.

Continents, countries, streets, mountains and lakes (singular)

  • Africa
  • I’m visiting Italy next month.
  • Lake Michigan
  • Grafton Street
  • Mount Everest

⚠️ We use the with some names of countries, rivers, islands and seas (the USA, the UK, the Netherlands, the British Isles…)

Before the titles (functions, status) followed by the person’s name

  • Doctor Parker
  • Queen Elizabeth
  • Prince William
  • King Louis XV
  • President Sarkozy

Ex: President Trump has visited a museum in Paris.

In front of the days, the months

  • Sarah goes to the swimming pool on Tuesday.
  • August is usually very hot.
  • I love Fridays.

Time and weather

  • It’s spring !
  • at night
  • Next year I’m going to Sri Lanka  (not: the next year)

⚠️but we say: in the evening 


Indefinite articles in English (a and an) – (lesson with examples)

Indefinite articles in English (a and an)




Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.

The article a/an

We use A or AN when the thing or person we are talking about is not specific (it is “indefinite”):

  • I met a friend in New York.
  • I work in a school.

A/AN exists only in the singular, and only before a name that can be counted.

  • There is a book on the chair  (singular)
  • There are books on the chair  (plural)
  • There are a books on the chair ❌
  • There is water on the floor  (we can’t count water… so we put nothing here!)

We use a/an to talk about someone’s job:

  • He is a doctor  (we don’t say ‘he is doctor’)

We put A before a consonant (b, c, d, f, g, p, m, etc…):

  • a bear
  • a teacher
  • a table
  • a dog
  • a pilot

We put AN in front of a vowel (a, e, i, o, u):

  • an apple
  • an invitation
  • an elephant
  • an actor
  • an umbrella

Actually, it’s not that simple….

It’s the sound of the first letter of a word that determines whether we use a or an: if the word begins with a vowel sound, we use AN. If the word begins with a consonant sound, A is used.

Indeed, they say:

  • a university
  • a unicorn
  • a euro
  • a european
  • a user

⚠️ Even if hour, honor and x-ray start with consonants, we use “an” because they pronounce themselves as if they started with a vowel:

  • an hour
  • an honor
  • an x-ray

This is also why we use an when we talk about the letter F:

  • Your name is Francis, with an F? (NOT ‘with a F?‘)
  • He is an FBI agent (NOT ‘he is a FBI agent’)

Which is correct: “a one” or “an one”?

One is pronounced “wun,” so it sounds like a consonant, although it starts with a vowel : a one is correct.

  • I can’t see, is it a one or a seven? 


It’s not really a question of whether the word begins with a vowel or not, but with a vowel sound.

  • Buy a house in an hour = house and hour start with the same letters but pronounce differently!
  • An unknown woman saw a unicorn = same thing, unknown and unicorn start with the same letters but pronounce themselves differently. Either A or AN is used depending on the sound!

Remember that it’s the sound that is important!

⚠️ Herb & Hospital: it depends!

Do we say a hospital or an hospital?  The letter H of these two words is pronounced or not depending on whether you have an American or British accent. In American english, the H is silent, so it looks more like an herb, a hospital…

Defined (the) or indefinite (a, an) article?

Finally, look at the following example to understand the difference:

  • Pass me a cup  (any one)
  • Pass me the cup  (a precise cup)
  • I need a pen  (any one)
  • I need the pen  (a specific pen)


The definite article (The) – with examples!





Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.

In English, we simply use THE, for the masculine, feminine or neutral, or even for the singular or plural.

We say that ‘the’ is a definite article because it defines something specific. On the contrary, a/an are indefinite articles because they indicates something non-specific.

  • the bike
  • the bikes
  • the boy 
  • the boys

Did you know that ‘the’ is the most used word in English language?


THE is used in the following cases:


  • the elderly 
  • the poor 
  • the Canadians 


  • This is a plane from the 1930’s
  • She was born in the eighties


  • the stars 
  • the earth 
  • the sun 
  • the moon 


  • the Hudson River 
  • the Indian Ocean 
  • the Pacific Ocean 
  • the Himalayas 
  • the Nile 
  • the Alps 
  • the Rocky Mountains 
  • the Arctic 
  • the Dead sea 


  • the Simpsons (= the Simpson family)


  • the Eiffel Tower
  • the Louvre


  • the New York Times
  • the Guardian
  • the Sun


  • the United States of America
  • the United Kingdom 
  • the Netherlands
  • the Philippines

⚠️ The agreement is generally in the singular:

  • The USA is a very big country. 

Definite article (the) or indefinite (a/an)?

See the following example:

  • Can we go to the park? → specific, we already know the park where we want to go.
  • Can we go to a park? → non-specific, it could be any park.

When Not to use ‘the’?


  • She’s just returned from Italy.
  • Russia is a very big country.
  • Asia is bigger than Africa.


  • French is spoken in Switzerland.
  • English uses many words of Latin origin.
  • Japanese is a beautiful language.


  • I like to eat breakfast in the morning. = ✅ / I like to eat the breakfast in the morning. = ❌
  • Lunch is my favorite meal. = ✅ / The lunch is my favorite meal = ❌


  • President Trump is traveling to China.
  • Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth’s son.

We can say ‘The Queen visited Paris for the first time‘ because we don’t say her first name.


  • He’ll probably study medicine.
  • Engineering is a well-paid career.


  • Bread is an important food in France.
  • Milk is often added to tea in England.
  • War is destructive.


  • He lives near Long Island.
  • Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.
  • Have you been to Lake Tahoe?


  • Victoria Station is in the centre of London.
  • Can you show me where is Oxford Street?
  • They’re flying into Charles de Gaulle.


  • Go to school = ✅ / Go to the school = ❌
  • Go to work = ✅ / Go to the work = ❌
  • Go to hospital = ✅ / Go to the hospital = ❌

⚠️ We also say

  • Stay in bed = ✅ / Stay in the bed = ❌
  • Be at home = ✅ / Be at the home = ❌


For the seasons, you can put or not put THE, both are correct. We can say:

  • in summer
  • in the summer


Adjectives ending in -ed and -ing

Adjectives ending in -ed and -ing (complete list!)




Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.

When you add -ed or -ing to a verb, you can form adjectives. Here are some examples to help you understand better:

Verb: to interest

  • interested 
  • interesting

Verb: to tire

  • tired 
  • tiring 

Adjectives ending per -ed are past participles. They have a passive sense, the action is suffered:

  • Kevin is bored
  • I am frightened

Adjectives ending with -ing are present participants. They have an active sense, they produce a reaction:

  • The view is amazing
  • Snakes are frightening

The list of the most common English adjectives ending in -ed and -ing:

Adjectives ending in -ed Adjectives ending in -ing
aggravated aggravating
alarmed alarming
amazed amazing
amused amusing
annoyed annoying
astonished astonishing
astounded astounding
bewildered bewildering
bored boring
captivated captivating
challenged challenging
charmed charming
comforted comforting
concerned concerning
confused confusing
convinced convincing
depressed depressing
devastated devastating
disappointed disappointing
discouraged discouraging
disgusted disgusting
distressed distressing
disturbed disturbing
embarrassed embarrassing
enchanted enchanting
encouraged encouraging
energised energising
entertained entertaining
exasperated exasperating
excited exciting
exhausted exhausting
fascinated fascinating
flattered flattering
frightened frightening
frustrated frustrating
fulfilled fulfilling
gratified gratifying
horrified horrifying
humiliated humiliating
inspired inspiring
insulted insulting
interested interesting
intrigued intriguing
irritated irritating
moved moving
mystified mystifying
overwhelmed overwhelming
perplexed perplexing
perturbed perturbing
pleased pleasing
puzzled puzzling
relaxed relaxing
satisfied satisfying
shocked shocking
sickened sickening
soothed soothing
surprised surprising
tempted tempting
terrified terrifying
threatened threatening
thrilled thrilling
tired tiring
touched touching
troubled troubling
unnerved unnerving
unsettled unsettling
worried worrying


Adjective rules in english (Free grammar PDF)

Adjective rules in English




Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.

What is an adjective? 

An adjective is a word used to describe something. When you use an adjective, you say something about a noun or subject you are talking about. Words like long, short, blue, red, big, small, etc… are all adjectives. They provide more details about the people, places, or things you want to describe.

An adjective can indicate…

  • the quantity  → five, eleven, several, a few
  • the size  → tall, massive, big, huge, tiny…
  • the condition → easy, important, rich, expensive, broken, damaged, dusty, wet…
  • the color → blue, red, green…
  • the appearance → pretty, delicious, beautiful, interesting…
  • the personality  → calm, happy, proud, angry, jealous
  • the age → old, young, new, ancient
  • the temperature → cold, warm, hot…
  • the shape  → round, square, deep, narrow…
  • the origin  → Japanese, Spanish, French…
  • the material  → silver, glass, wooden
  • the sound  → loud, noisy, quiet
  • the time → slow, fast

Adjectives are placed before nouns:

  • a yellow bike 
  • a dark sky 
  • a scary movie 

Adjectives are placed after the verb:

  • The bike is yellow 
  • The sky becomes dark 
  • The movie seems scary 

Several adjectives can be used in a row:

  • a nice old house 

If there are more than two, they are often separated by commas, unless they are short (more than three adjectives in a row is not very common…):

  • a nice little green car 
  • a strange, mysterious, frightening house. 

In English, adjectives never take -s in the plural, they are invariable:

  • Paul and Sarah are thin and tall

Adjectives can be qualified by using adverbs that are placed before the adjective: very  really, so, too much, rather, quite, a little, almost, enough.

  • She is really pretty. 

enough is always placed after the adjective:

  • He is big enough. 

When using an adjective of colour or nationality with another adjective, it’s usually the closest to the noun:

  • They sell big Italian pizzas in this restaurant. 
  • There’s a big black dog in the garden. 

In English, compound adjectives can be created from a noun to make a physical description under the following construction: adjective-noun + ed

  • The police are looking for a short-haired woman. 

Adjectives can be formed by adding the ending -ed or -ing to some verbs:

  • interest → interested / interesting

Most adjectives can be comparative or superlative:

  • big → bigger, biggest
  • high → higher, highest
  • good → better, best
  • beautifu → more beautiful, most beautiful
  • large → larger, largest

Some adjectives are sometimes followed by a preposition that introduces their complement: proud of, good at, afraid of, terrified of, satisfied with, happy with, addicted to, worried about…

  • She is addicted to her smartphone. 
  • He is terrified of spiders. 

Some adjectives sometimes have particular endings:

  • -able → washable, adorable, uncomfortable
  • -ible  → invisible, responsible, incredible
  • -al  → educational, gradual, illegal, nocturnal, viral
  • -an  → American, Mexican, urban
  • -ant → constant, distant, elegant, important…
  • -ar  → cellular, popular, spectacular, vulgar
  • -ent  → intelligent, potent, silent, violent
  • -ful  → careful, harmful, powerful, tasteful, thoughtful
  • -ic → athletic, energetic, scientific
  • -ical  → magical
  • -ine  → bovine, canine, equine, feminine, masculine
  • -ile  → agile, docile, fertile, virile
  • -ish → childish
  • -ive  → informative, native, talkative
  • -less  → careless, endless, homeless, timeless
  • -ous  → cautious, dangerous, enormous, malodorous
  • -some  → awesome, handsome, lonesome, wholesome
  • -y → dirty, pretty, angry, busy, wealthy, windy



How to use There is / There are in English

How to use there is / there are in English?




Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.

We use there is (singular) and there are (plural) to talk about the presence of someone or something:

  • There is a book on the table.
  • There are two books on the table.

In negative sentences:

  • There is not a book on the table (we can also say: There is no book on the table)
  • There are not two books on the table (we can also say: There are no books on the table)

In the questions:

  • Is there a book on the table?
  • Are there two books on the table?

To answer, you can say:

  • Yes, there is / No, there isn’t
  • Yes, there are / No, there aren’t

The contractions:

  • There is = There’s
  • There is not = There’s not / there isn’t
  • There are not = There aren’t   (not there’re )

Orally, there’s is more used than there is:

  • There’s a party tomorrow night near the lake.
  • There’s some pizza in the fridge.

Note: even if this is incorrect, English speakers often use there’s orally, even if they speak several things:

  • There’s four other people waiting outside.

There was / There were

In the past, we use there was (singular) and there were (plural):

  • There was a spider in the kitchen.
  • There were children playing in the park.

Constructions with There / auxiliary / be

  • There will be
  • There is going to be
  • There used to be
  • There could be
  • There should be
  • There would be
  • There must be

Some examples of possible uses:

  • There will be too many people.
  • There could be a problem.
  • There should be a solution.
  • There must be toilets nearby.


1 – To express duration, we use Ago

  • I went to Tokyo two weeks ago.  (NOT ‘I went to Tokyo there’s three weeks’)

2 – Don’t confuse: They’re, Their, and There!

  • They’re = They are
  • Their = possession


Position of adverbs

Position of adverbs in English


Feel free to leave a comment if you find any errors or if you have any suggestions to make to improve this lesson.

Some tips to know the position of adverbs in English.

Frequency adverbs (always, often, never, never, seldom, usually): they are placed before the verb, if the verb has a simple form. If ‘be’ is the main verb and there is no auxiliary, the frequency adverb is put next. Otherwise, we put it first:

  • He often goes to the swimming pool.
  • She has never been to France.
  • We are always at home on tuesday.

Frequency expressions (every day, once a week…) are placed at the end of a sentence or at the very beginning of a sentence:

  • I go to the cinema once a week.
  • She speaks english every day.
  • He calls his mum three times a day.
  • Once a month, I visit my family.
  • I visit him twice a week.
  • He meets her several times a month.

Adverbs of manner

They are placed after the main verb, or before it to put importance on the adverb:

  • He speaks Spanish very well.
  • He really likes his car.

Some adverbs are always placed after the verbs: well, badly, fast, hard, late

  • The team well played. [WRONG]
  • The team played well. [CORRECT]
  • He badly plays guitar. [WRONG]
  • He plays guitar badly. [CORRECT]

⚠️hard and fast are irregular adverbs – we do not say hardly or fastly.

Adverbs of Degree

They immediately place themselves in front of the adjective or adverb they are modifying:

  • He is too slow.
  • He has almost finished.
  • She is very tired.

Be careful, enough is placed after the word it modifies.

  • She worked hard enough. [We don’t say: She worked enough hard]

Enough is often followed by to + infinitive or followed by for….

  • She is old enough to be his mother.
  • Is it hot enough for you?
  • I’ve studied enough for today.
  • This house isn’t big enough for us.

Adverbs of time and place (HERE, THERE, YESTERDAY, TODAY…)

They can be placed at the beginning (but it’s rare) or more generally at the end of the sentence:

  • Here, you can make a lot of friends.
  • He went to the gym yesterday.